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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • DOI (if assigned) or URLs (where relevant) for references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • The submission has a high standard of written English. Please note that the submission will be returned to you after an initial review by an editor if the standard of written English is not of a suitable quality.
  • This is a new submission, not a revised version of a manuscript already under review within WJ-ET.
  • A statement about the ethics issues relevant to the research and approvals under which the data was collected and reported has been included in the Methods section. It is expected that there will be a statement for all articles that include data collected from or about humans. This requirement may not be relevant for some articles such as literature reviews.
  • Ensure when submitting your paper that you include all authors in the system. When you add your authorship details there is a option to "add author". In addition, for each author please include their ORCID which will ensure that if your paper is published it will be associated with your online profiles.


Files should be in MS Word format only and should be formatted for direct printing. Figures and tables should be embedded and not supplied separately. Please make sure that, as far as possible, you use regular fonts in your documents. Special fonts, such as fonts used in the Far East (Japanese, Chinese, Korean, etc.) may cause problems during processing. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the spellchecker function of MS Word (proofing language: English UK) and to have your work language edited by a professional English language practitioner. Please submit a letter from the practitioner verifying that your work has been professionally edited.

Article Structure

Articles should be prepared in the following order:

Title: Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. The title should not exceed 12 words and should be font size 16.

Abstract: The abstract is a meaningful summary or synopsis of the complete document, written in one paragraph (150 words). It should address all of the following elements: The purpose of the article, methods, results, conclusions, and recommendations / future directions (as applicable).

Abstract Writing Style

Use specific words, phrases, concepts, and keywords from your article.

Use precise, clear, descriptive language.

Write from an objective, rather than evaluative, point of view.

Define unique terms and acronyms the first time used.

Type in font size 10.

Use complete sentences.

Use verbs in the active voice If the article reports quantitative findings to write in the third person, as traditionally done in quantitative studies.

If the article reports qualitative findings, write in the first person, as traditionally done in qualitative studies.

 Keywords: Immediately after the abstract, provide a minimum of five or a maximum of seven keywords. List these in alphabetical order and use font size 10. Use semi-colons between words.

Key Elements of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Article:

  1. Introduction: This explains the nature and purpose of the article, the theoretical background relevant to the article's focus, and related research with a clear indication of the gap(s)/limitation(s) in existing knowledge/practice that the article will address, and the practical applications or significance of what the article reports. 
  2. Methods and Materials: This section names and justifies the research design; describes the participants/sample (e.g., contextualization, demographics, recruitment/selection criteria, and group assignment); the data collection instruments/ data generation techniques (e.g., task[s] / method(s), equipment, instruments, including a discussion of their validity and reliability, if appropriate, or trustworthiness in qualitative studies); the procedures employed in the study such as treatment(s) or the data generation process; and data analysis. Authors must please align the language of this section with their design (i.e., quantitative and qualitative methods sections will use different research jargon). 


    Author/s must comment explicitly on how their work was ethical. A statement about the ethics issues relevant to the research and approvals under which the data was collected and reported has been included in the Methods section. It is expected that there will be a statement for all articles that include data collected from or about humans. This requirement may not be relevant for some articles such as literature reviews.

  3. Results /Findings: Results/findings should be clear and concise. You can present the data you have obtained in tables or graphs without exaggeration and explain them in writing.
  4. Discussion: The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, and not repeat them. Authors need to acknowledge their study's limitations. The combined results and discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature in the discussion instead use the literature to show how the results/findings are significant.
  5. Conclusion(s): The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of the discussion, or results and discussion, section.
  6. Recommendations/Future directions:  Recommendations/Future directions may stand alone or form a subsection of the discussion or results and discussion section. These include meaningful suggestions for further research and/or practical applications flowing from the study's conclusions.

Conflict of Interest: A conflict of interest can occur when you, or your employer, or your sponsor have a financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations, or with the people working with them, that could influence your research. 

Ethical Approval: If any, it is including your ethical approval, documenting the full name of the approving ethical committee. 

Acknowledgments (when appropriate): Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title, or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., language editing, writing assistance, fieldwork, etc.) and sponsors.

References: References are listed in alphabetical order. Each listed reference is cited in the text, and each text citation is listed in the References. References should be in line with APA 7 (American Psychological Association) style.

Appendices: If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1), and so on.

Key Elements for Discussion Articles: major theme, logical development of the theme, author's point of view, implications, inferences, or conclusions.

Key Elements for Systematic Reviews and/or Meta-syntheses: scope of the review, publication time span, publication origin, types of documents reviewed, author's opinion of the reviewed literature, particularly unique or important research findings, and conclusions about the research trends.

 Formatting your Document

Articles should be prepared in a single-column format suitable for direct printing onto A4 sheets of paper (8.3in x 11.7in/210mm x 297mm).

The body of the research article (Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendations, Conflict of Interest, Ethical Approval, Acknowledgements, and References) should be typed in Calibri, font size 10. Use single-line spacing. The length of the article - including abstract, tables, and references -must be between 3500 and 10000 words. The article must be written in USA English and must be language edited by a professional English language practitioner prior to submission. Each paragraph should be longer than three sentences and maximum six sentences.

Write and structure articles according to APA 7 (American Psychological Association).
Tables: All tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals. Headings should be placed above tables and centered. Leave one line space between the heading and the table. Only horizontal lines should be used within a table, to distinguish the column headings from the body of the table. Tables must be embedded into the text and not supplied separately. Table contents should be typed in font size 10.

Illustrations: All figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3). All photographs, schemas, graphs, and diagrams are to be referred to as figures. Line drawings should be good-quality scans (minimum of 300 dpi) or true electronic output. Low-quality scans are not acceptable. Figures must be embedded into the text and not supplied separately.

Lettering and symbols should be clearly defined either in the caption or in a legend provided as part of the figure. Figures should be placed at the top or bottom of a column wherever possible, as close as possible to the first reference to them in the article. The figure number and caption should be typed below the illustration, left justified, with subsequent lines indented.

Equations: All equations should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2 ...n).

Style and References:

Please adhere to APA 7 (American Psychological Association) style in your article. Guidelines on how to do so can be accessed from the following link:


Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of your article, prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details on any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:

A letter to the editor, specifying that the submission reflects original work that is not under review elsewhere and how the submission fits the journal's scope and offers new knowledge. The letter should also include information regarding which one author has been designated as the corresponding author. Contact details for this author must be provided, including:

Affiliation (department/school; faculty; university; country), Official E-mail address, Full postal address, Telephone, and fax numbers

All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:

Title page; (The full title of the manuscript, the name(s) of the author(s) together with their affiliations, and the name, address, and e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence should be sent, as well as the date of submission/resubmission.) 

Main document: Including title of the manuscript, abstract and keywords, main texts, all figure captions, all tables (including title, description, and footnotes), conflict of interest, ethical approval, references are in the correct format (i.e., APA 7) for this journal, all references mentioned in the reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa.

Further considerations: The manuscript has been professionally language edited, APC document, and Similarity Report (not more than %10).



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