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The purpose of this study is to discuss approaches for developing human–computer interaction (HCI) in educational technology (ET) based on definitions of visual design, learning variables and user-interface design principles in the field of instructional design and technology (IDT). We will do in several stages, first, we will review historical definitions of HCI and its developments in education and considerations for defining visual literacy for learning with instructional design (ID) models. Then, we will review each definition of visual principles for user interface design (UID) or user experience design (UED) and learning from screens. HCI and its roles with the perceptional approach will be discussed as previous definitions in the type of theories such as cognitive load, activity and paying particular attention to primary concepts included in each definition based on the ID model approach. We will also present some of the historical criticisms of the definitions, which provided designing and developing user interfaces. The process should indicate or address possible performance design approaches in ID steps for developing learning and teaching in learning environments as well as developing UID or UED in ET. This also indicates approaches in philosophy of ET and its theory, definition and applications of new technologies as well as UID or UED perspectives and visual design variables. In this study, we review the visual design techniques from past to present that multimedia project design teams should follow the strategies and rules for designing learning environments in industry, business and military based on philosophy of ET and HCI design with ID models by using the newest technologies. The process compares both understanding global UID or UED requirements and visual strategies and considerations for research and product design by ID models. The steps include recognising terminology in ET practice concept, psychological, technological and pedagogical foundations in ID as well as ET approaches and using visual rules for conducting multimedia projects in last decays. At the end of the study, conceptions of ET, ID models and HCI will be discussing to indicate design standards for multimedia projects in the field of IDT. We will also present the relationships between ET and designing problems for creating instructional materials in education. All steps in visual design, UID, UED and HCI design based on philosophical approaches and evaluations in the field are given at the end of the study.
Keywords: User interface design, visual designs, human–computer interaction (HCI), user experience design, educational technology, IDT.